Diabetic Retinopathy


Preventing Disease Progression

During the first three stages of diabetic retinopathy, no treatment is needed, unless you have macular edema. To prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy, people with diabetes should control their levels of blood sugar, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol.

Treatment for Macular Edema

Research found that that prompt treatment of macular edema with anti-VEGF drugs, with or without laser treatment, resulted in better vision than laser treatment alone or steroid injections. When injected into the eye, these drugs reduce fluid leakage and interfere with the growth of new blood vessels in the retina.

In some cases, focal laser treatment is used along with the eye injections. Your doctor places up to several hundred small laser burns in the areas of the retina around the macula that are leaking.

These burns slow the leakage of fluid and reduce the amount of fluid in the retina. The surgery is usually completed in one session. Further treatment may be needed.

Treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy

Proliferative retinopathy is treated with laser surgery. This procedure is called scatter laser treatment. Scatter laser treatment helps to shrink the abnormal blood vessels.

Your doctor places 1,000 to 2,000 laser burns in the areas of the retina away from the macula, causing the abnormal blood vessels to shrink.

Because a high number of laser burns are necessary, two or more sessions usually are required to complete treatment.

Although you may notice some loss of your side vision, scatter laser treatment can save the rest of your sight. Scatter laser treatment may slightly reduce your color vision and night vision.

Scatter laser treatment works better before the fragile, new blood vessels have started to bleed. That is why it is important to have regular, comprehensive dilated eye exams. Even if bleeding has started, scatter laser treatment may still be possible, depending on the amount of bleeding.

Learn more about laser treatment.


If the bleeding is severe, you may need a surgical procedure called a vitrectomy. During a vitrectomy, blood is removed from the center of your eye.

Scatter laser treatment and vitrectomy are effective in treating proliferative retinopathy and in reducing vision loss.

Once you have proliferative retinopathy, you always will be at risk for new bleeding. You may need treatment more than once to protect your sight.

Learn more about a vitrectomy.

Have Dilated Eye Exams

The National Eye Institute (NEI) urges everyone with diabetes to have a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year. If you have diabetic retinopathy, you may need an exam more often. People with proliferative retinopathy can reduce their risk of blindness by 95 percent with timely treatment and appropriate follow-up care.

Watch an animation to see what a comprehensive dilated eye exam includes.


The National Eye Institute, or NEI, is conducting and supporting research that seeks better ways to detect, treat, and prevent vision loss in people with diabetes. This research is conducted through studies in the laboratory and with patients.

For example, researchers are studying drugs for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy that may reduce the need for laser surgery.

A major study has shown that better control of blood sugar levels slows the onset and progression of retinopathy. The people with diabetes who kept their blood sugar levels as close to normal as possible also had much less kidney and nerve disease. Better control also reduces the need for sight-saving laser surgery.