Prostate Cancer

Standard Treatments

Choosing Treatment

There are a number of ways to treat prostate cancer, and the doctor will develop a treatment to fit each man's needs. The choice of treatment mostly depends on the stage of the disease and the grade of the tumor. But doctors also consider a man's age, general health, and his feelings about the treatments and their possible side effects.

Treatment for prostate cancer may involve watchful waiting, surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy. Some men receive a combination of therapies. A cure is the goal for men whose prostate cancer is diagnosed early and who choose to be treated.

Weighing Treatment Options

You and your doctor will want to consider both the benefits and possible side effects of each option, especially the effects on sexual activity and urination, and other concerns about quality of life.

Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy all have the potential to disrupt sexual desire or performance for a short while or permanently. Discuss your concerns with your health care provider. Several options are available to help you manage sexual problems related to prostate cancer treatment.

Watchful Waiting

With watchful waiting, a man's condition is closely monitored, but treatment does not begin until symptoms appear or change. The doctor may suggest watchful waiting for some men who have prostate cancer that is found at an early stage and appears to be growing slowly. Also, watchful waiting may be advised for older men or men with other serious medical problems.

For these men, the risks and possible side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal therapy may outweigh the possible benefits. Doctors monitor these patients with regular check-ups. Currently, over a third of all men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer choose watchful waiting. However, if symptoms appear or get worse, the doctor may recommend active treatment.


Surgery is used to remove the cancer. It is a common treatment for early stage prostate cancer. The surgeon may remove the entire prostate with a type of surgery called radical prostatectomy or, in some cases, remove only part of it.

Sometimes the surgeon will also remove nearby lymph nodes. Side effects of the operation may include lack of sexual function or impotence, or problems holding urine or incontinence.

Improvements in surgery now make it possible for some men to keep their sexual function. In some cases, doctors can use a technique known as nerve-sparing surgery. This may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with large tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may not be able to have this surgery.

Some men with trouble holding urine may regain control within several weeks of surgery. Others continue to have problems that require them to wear a pad.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Doctors may recommend it instead of surgery, or after surgery, to destroy any cancer cells that may remain in the area.

In advanced stages, the doctor may recommend radiation to relieve pain or other symptoms. It may also be used in combination with hormonal therapy. Radiation can cause problems with impotence and bowel function.

The radiation may come from a machine, which is external radiation, or from tiny radioactive seeds placed inside or near the tumor, which is internal radiation. Men who receive only the radioactive seeds usually have small tumors. Some men receive both kinds of radiation therapy.

For external radiation therapy, patients go to the hospital or clinic -- usually for several weeks. Internal radiation may require patients to stay in the hospital for a short time.

(Watch the video to learn more about external radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To enlarge the video, click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner. To reduce the video, press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.)

Hormonal Therapy

Hormonal therapy deprives cancer cells of the male hormones they need to grow and survive. This treatment is often used for prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.

Sometimes doctors use hormonal therapy to try to keep the cancer from coming back after surgery or radiation treatment. Side effects can include impotence, hot flashes, loss of sexual desire, and thinning of bones. Some hormone therapies increase the risk of blood clots. Hormonal therapy is often in the form of a pill.

Monitoring Treatment

Regardless of the type of treatment you receive, you will be closely monitored to see how well the treatment is working. Monitoring may include

  • a PSA blood test -- usually every 3 months to 1 year.
  • bone scan and/or CT scan to see if the cancer has spread.
  • a complete blood count to monitor for signs and symptoms of anemia.
  • looking for signs or symptoms that the disease might be progressing, such as fatigue, increased pain, or decreased bowel and bladder function.